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Orthopaedic Clinic

Stem cell
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Stem Cell Sources:


                  Embryonic: Derived from embryo that is allowed to develop five to six days to blastocyst stage. The embryonic stem cell usually begin to differentiate by 10 –14 days.

                  Adult stem cell: Derived from bone marrow and other adipose tissues. They in contrast to embryonic stem cells are more differentiated, i.e instead of being truly pleuripotent they are multipotent.

                  Parthogenesis: Technique called nuclear reprogramming derives stem cell lines from unfertilized eggs by transferring the nucleus from the somatic cells.


Potential uses:

1.      Spinal cord regeneration.

2.      Increasing mineral content in patients with OA.

3.      Meniscal and ACL ligament repair.

4.      Cartilage repair.

5.      Spinal Fusions.

6.      Muscular dystrophy.

7.      Intervertebral disc regeneration.


Legislations: Varies from stringent to mild:


                  Strict: Austria restricts the use of embryos only for in vitro fertilization thus limiting any kind of stem cell research.


                  Liberal: UK, Israel, Singapore are more liberal and have pragmatic approach to use of stem cells.


                  In between: Countries like Germany and United states allow stem cells derived before a certain point in embryo’s development.


Not known: India?

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