TIT BITS: some small packets of information on topics that are commonly
asked off hand during Viva exams
Types of Muscle contractions:
Isometric: Isometric refers to "equal Distance". This mans that the
contraction doesn't result in the movement of the joint. Examples include: Pushing on a wall, holding a briefcase or lifting
a heavy weight.
Isotonic: Refers to an equivalent force being exerted throughout an
entire range of movement. Typical examples include lifting free weights. The goal of this exercise is to ensure that muscle
gets worked up during the entire range of motion.
Iso kinetic: Means equal speed. No matter how hard the subject pushes
against the machines, the speed of movement remains constant. This allows the person exercising to exert maximal force during
all parts of the ROM.
Plyometric Exercise: A functional type of exercise which applies
the principle of a brief stretch following a contraction.
Mechanism of injury that lead to fractures:
Direct Injury: Direct blow fractures the bone at site of impact.
Transverse and Oblique fractures: Bending forces.
Spiral Fractures: result of a twisting force.
Compression Fractures: Due to crushing compressive forces.
Types of weight Bearing:
None: 0% body weight.
Toe -Touch weight bearing: up to 20% body weight.
Partial weight bearing: 20 - 50 % body weight.
Weight bearing a tolerated: 50 -100% of body weight.
Full weight bearing: 100% body weight.
Drugs used in osteoporosis:
Inhibitors of Osteoclasts:
Stimulators of Bone formation:
receptor modulators (SERM): Raloxifen, Tamoxifen.
Mechanisms of heating modality used in PT and Rehab:
Superficial heating modalities:
Hot water soaks.
Short Wave diathermy (SWD): Heats tissue by exposing it to
radio waves produced by a machine that is essentially a short wave radio. Three frequencies are commonly used 40.68, 27.12
and 13.56 M Hz. Energy is delivered by either capacitive or inductive electrodes.
TENS: It is a analgesic modality that applies small electrical
signals to the body with superficial skin electrodes. Electrodes may be placed over the peripheral nerves, nerve roots and
acupuncture points, as well as proximal to, distal to, over and ( more controversially) contra lateral to the pain site.
Describing a fracture on x ray:
Involvement Of the bone region: Diaphysis, metaphysic, epiphysis or articular
Fracture line configuration: Transverse, oblique or spiral.
Deformity: Alignment, angulations, and rotation.
Number and location of boney fragments, displacement, direction and distance
from normal location, distance between fragments.
Dislocation or effusion of adjacent joint.
Swelling or evidence of soft tissue disruption.
IDET is a percutaneous procedure designed to treat symptomatic
lumbar internal disc disruption, as determined by provocative discography. The procedure employs a navigable catheter inserted
into the disc via a large bore needle. The distal portion of catheter incorporates an active electro thermal tip placed in
the posterior annulus. The thermal resistance coil generates heat that is directly transferred to the annular tissues from
the active tip to modify collagen fibers and coagulate the nociceptors.
Prolotherapy: Injection of a solution for the purpose of tightening
and strengthening loose or weak tendons, ligaments or joint capsules. A proliferant (usually 15% dextrose solution) is injected
and cause multiplication and activation of fibroblast, which synthesize precursors to mature collagen, resulting in thicker,
stronger and tighter connective tissue.
Agents to treat spasticity:
acid): 5-6% aqueous solution for adults and 3-5% for children.
in a concentration of 35-100%.
Inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction.
Orthosis: An external apparatus worn to restrict or assist
movement. Three cardinal indications are SAP: support, alignment, protection.
Muscle groups around shoulder:
Prime movers: Deltoid, and clavicular head of Pectoralis Major.
Steering Group: Subscapularis, Supraspinatus, and Infraspinatus.
Depressor Group: Sternal head of P. Major, Teres Major and Minor,
Portals of Knee Arthroscopy:
Anterolateral: 1 cm lateral to the lateral border of patella and 1
cm above the joint line.
Anteromedial: 1 cm medial to medial border of patella and 1 cm above
the medial joint line.
Posteromedial: Junction of posteromedial edge of femur and posteromedial
edge of Tibia.
Superolateral: 2.5 cm lateral to superolateral corner of the patella.
Cryotherapy: The primary rationale is the initial vasoconstriction
that assists in control of swelling and edema that typifies acute injuries. Various modalities that are used are: Ice massage,
cool spray, cold whirl pool.
Physiological effects of cooling:
Local increase in tissue temperature.
Decrease in the metabolism.
Decrease in the blood flow.
Decrease in the nerve conduction velocity.
Decrease in venous and lymphatic drainage.
Decrease in muscle spindle activity.
Decreased formation of and accumulation of edema.
Indications: Decrease the bleeding, Spasm, edema, fever, burns, Herpes
Has a thermal and non thermal effect:
Non thermal effects:
Stimulates the chemical activities in tissue.
Alters the permeability of cell membrane and increases
of fluid and nutrient to the cell.
Deforms the molecular structure and if the intensity is
great may even cause cavitations.
Uses: Decrease the pain.
Facilitate the healing process by increasing the circulation.
Decrease the scar tissue.
Frequency used: Depends on skin thickness, usually 0.5- 2.0 mw/cm
Interferential therapy: Two different frequencies are used.
The medium frequency that has a value in reducing the skin resistance but doesn’t decrease the pain or stimulate the
muscle is combined with an effective frequency (1- 200 MHz) so that together they can achieve a desired penetration as well
as the desired effect.
Effects of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine:
Stimulate the metabolism
of chondrocyte and synoviocytes.
Reduce fibrin thrombi
in periarticular vasculature.
the biosynthesis of glycososaminoglycans and
the back bone needed for formation of proteoglycans
found in the structural matrix of the joints.
This hyaluronic acid suppresses
the anticatabolic effects of interleukin 1 in
chondrocyte cell cultures.
Offer anti inflammatory
and antinociceptive properties by stimulation of hyaluronic acid synthesis.
Dampen the response
of the pain fibers in the joint membrane by coating the pain receptor.
Provides lubricating and cushioning properties.
Decrease the cartilage elasticity and compressibility.
Indications for prophylactic fixation for impending long bone fractures:
1. Cortical bone destruction of 50% or more.
2. Lesion of 2.5 cm or more of proximal femur.
3. Pathological avulsion of lesser trochanter.
4. Persisting stress pain despite irradiation.
Indications of Epiphysiodesis:
1. If there is sufficient growth left to effect a correction.
2. If the patient is growing on or above the 50 the centile and will be taller
3. If discrepancy is 6 cm or less- with increasing discrepancy the potential
for error is
Interpretation of DEXA scores:
T score- The score in references to a young adult population and is a measure
of the absolute risk of fracture.
Z score: Those with age matched control group, indicates relative risk.
< 2.5: Osteoporosis.
< 2.5 +: Indicates severe osteoporosis in presence of evidence of stress
Rickets: Defective mineralization of immature skelton.
Others: Anti convulsants,
NF, Wilson disease. Liver disease.
Alternative Classification for cause:
Defective 25 alpha
hydroxylation: Liver diseases, anti convulsants.
Defective 1 alpha
hydroxylation: Renal disorders, nephrectomy, 1- alpha hydroxylase
Biochemical tests for rickets:
1. Serum calcium and phosphate concentration.
2. Serum alkaline phosphate.
3. Osteocalcin ( Gla Protein): more specific marker of bone formation.
4. Parathyroid hormone activiserum assay of COOH terminal fragment.
5. Vit D activity: measuring 25 – HCC concentration.
6. Urinary calcium and phosphate excretion.
7. Urinary hydroxyl praline excretion.
8. Excretion of pyridinium compounds and telopeptides derived from collagen
cross links; it is a sensitive marker for bone resorption.
Pathology in ricket: Inability to calcify the intercellular matrix
in the deeper layers of the physis. The proliferative zone is as active as ever but the cells instead of arranging themselves
in an orderly column, pile up irregularly, the entire physeal plate increases in thickness, the zone of calcification is poorly
mineralized and bone formation is sparse in the zone of ossification. The new trabeculae are thin and weak and with joint
loading the juxta epi- meta physis becomes broad and cup shaped.
Away from the physis the changes are mostly of osteomalacia. Sparse islands
of bone are lined by wide osteoid seams, producing ghost trabeculae that are not very strong. The cortices are also thinner
than normal and may show new or old stress fractures.
Thickening and widening of the growth plate.
Cupping of metaphysic.
Bowing of diaphysis.
Osteomalacia X rays:
Deficiency of lysosomal enzymes.
Glycosoaminoglycans: - Dermatan sulfate, Keratan sulfate, heparin sulfate and
chondroitin sulfate which are normally degraded by lysosomal enzymes are accumulated in lysosomes with an impaired function
of cells, tissues and organs and are found increased in urine.
Common features include: Enlargement of organs, abnormal appearance, boney
abnormalities, hearing, vision, CVS function, restriction of joint mobility. Mental retardation in Hurler syndrome.
J shaped cella, Thick clavarium.
Chest: wide oar shaped
ribs, wide clavicle.
Spine: Oval and hook
Pelvis: Over constriction
of iliac bodies, wide iliac flare, dysplasia of femoral capital
Long tubular bones:
Irregular diaphyseal modeling, periosteal cloaking.
Bone structure: Osteopenia.
Short tubular bones:
Shortening and widening.
Types of MPS:
I – Hurler Syndrome (Gargolyism)
II – Hunters (X Linked)
III – San Fillipo.
IV – Morquio.
V – Morceau.
Treatment of MPS in general:
genu valgus/ varus etc.
Development of bone
that is laid down in the cartilage is at fault.
The membranous bone
is found to develop normally.
size body, small stature with proximal segment affection most.
face broad, root of nose depressed, prognathism.
kyphus, Spinal stenosis.
Histo pathological appearance: Absence of cartilage proliferation,
loss of normal palisade. Ossification is very slow.
Diagnosis is based on: Epiphyseal line is indistinct but with normal
ossification ( in contrast to Rickets)